Training manual

The manual is written for traditional practitioners and deals with the organizational, medical, social, and legal aspects of the ritual. It also gives detailed information on wound care practices and complications. Available in English (2.9Mb) and in Xhosa (2.7Mb).

Medical guidelines

The treatment guideline (49Kb) and the classification system (393Kb) have been developed in conjunction with urologists and plastic surgeons to advice medical practitioners on dealing with penile complications.

Problem analysis

See the comprehensive problem analysis (217Kb) for more information about the situation in Pondoland.

Other sources

Peri-rite psychological issues faced by newly initiated traditionally circumcised Xhosa men (Bottoman et al. 2009).

How boys become dogs: stigmatization and marginalization of uninitiated Xhosa males (Mavundla et al. 2010).

'Secrets' that kill: crisis, custodianship & responsibility in ritual male circumcision (Kepe 2010).

Critique of traditional circumcision among Xhosa-speaking Christians (Papa et al. 2006).

What is Manhood? The significance of traditional circumcision in the Xhosa initiation ritual (Mhlahlo 2009).

Public hearings on male initiation schools in South Africa (CRL Commission 2010).

Becoming a man during amaXhosa ceremonial rites of initiation. A manual for teaching traditional surgeons and attendants about safe circumcision and social and sexual responsibility (USAID 2005).


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